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Principal Breeds of Dogs

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Principal Breeds of Dogs

(The figures refer to height at shoulder, and weight)

Afghan Hound. Largest of the grey¬hound family. Long, fine hair, long
ears. 29 in. ; 66 lb. Red, fawn, or golden. Originally bred in Afghanistan for hunting.

Airedale Terrier. Largest of the terrier family. Originally bred in the Aire valley, Yorkshire. Short, wiry hair. 23-24 in. ; 45-50 lb. Tan or grizzle with black saddle. Excellent police-and watch-dog.

Alsatian. One of the oldest breeds, originated in early Bronze Age (6,000 years ago). Used in Germany as sheep-dog. Smooth, medium-length hair. 25 in. ; 55 lb. Wolf-grey, sahle, brindle, black and tan, white, and cream. Excellent as guards and guide-dogs for the blind.

Basenji. Native to the Congo. Does not bark. Short, smooth coat. 16 in. ;
21 lb. Chestnut with white feet and

Basset. A small, short-legged, hunting dog Close smooth hair 13 in. : 44 lb. Black and tan with white

Beagle. small sturdy hound Short, smooth coal. 16 in. ; 35 lb. Black and tan with white markings.

Bedlington Terrier. Bred from the whippet. Short curly coat. 16 in. ;
22 lb. Blue, tan, sandy.
Black-and-tan. Miniature Manchester
terrier (q.v.). 9 in. : 7 lb.

Bloodhound. Old French breed des-cended from St. Hubert Hound. Introduced into England by William the Conqueror lor deer hunting. Short, glossy coat. Loose skin lying in folds on forehead ; long ears and chops.
26 in. ; 100 lb. Red, mahogany, tan
or black. Because of its keen scent
used for tracking.

Border Terrier. Small terrier first bred in Northumberland. Harsh, weather-proof outer coat and thick undercoat. 12 in. ; 15 lb. Grizzle, red-wheaten, blue and tan.

Borzoi. Russian wolfhound. Long, silky, curly coat. 30 in. ; 100 lb. White, or white and brown, with orange, fawn, red, or blue markings.

Boston Terrier. Called after Boston, Massachusetts, where it was first bred by crossing English and French bull¬dogs. Short, smooth coat. Flat nose, Shori twisted tail. 15 in. ; 18 lb. Black and white, brindle, mahogany, golden. There is a miniature variety 12 in. and 11 lb.

Boxer. German bulldog crossed with English bulldog. Short, smooth coat. Short nose, cropped ears, docked tail. 23 in. ; 60 lb. Bed, fawn, brindle.

Bulldog. Originally bred in England for bull-baiting. Short, smooth coat. Broad, wrinkled head, snub nose, protruding lower jaw, deep and broad chest. 16 in. ; 52 lb. Any shade except black or black and tan.

Bulldog, French. Developed in France from dog bred in Spain for worrying bulls. Short, smooth coat. Broad, square head ; short, thick tail ; large upstanding, bat-like ears. 12 in. ; 26 lb. Brindle and pied.

Bull Mastiff. English dog bred from bulldog and mastiff as a watchdog. Short, dense coat. Large, square head ; tail thick at root and tapering to a
point; short nose; short, thick body.
27 in. ; 125 lb. Fawn or brindle ; black mask.

Bull Terrier. Bred from the bulldog and old English white terrier as a flighting dog and ratter. Short, smooth coat. Thick-set body; long head; broad chest. 22 in. ; 50 lb. White, brindle. There is a miniature variety 12 in. and 12 lb.

Cairn Terrier. Scottish dog related to Skye and West Highland terriers and bred for ratting. Thick, harsh coat, furry underneath. Short ears, erect tail. 10 in. ; 15 lb. Ginger, fawn, wheaten, brindle.

Chow Chow. Chinese dog originally bred in Mongolia for eating and for its fur. Thick and woolly coat. Small, erect ears ; tail thickly-furred and carried over the back. Black gums and tongue. 20 in. ; 60 lb. Black, chocolate, red, blue, white. There is a smooth-haired variety called the Shan.

Collie. Scottish sheep dog, believed to be a direct descendant of the original wild dog from which all to-day's breeds derive. Long, thick harsh coat. Long head ; long, low-sweeping tail. 24 in. , 60 lb. Black and tan, sable, merle. There is a rare smooth-coated variety.

Corgi. Welsh cattle dog, of two varieties : the Cardiganshire and the Pembroke¬shire. The Cardiganshire has a long, trailing tail, while in the Pembroke¬shire the tail is short or absent. Smooth, dense coat. Long body ; short legs ; large, erect ears. 12 in. ; 22 lb. Brindle or black with fawn, white, or red markings.

Dachshund. One of the oldest breeds. Known in Egypt in the 26th century B.C. Developed in medieval Germany for hunting badgers. Short, smooth coat. Long, low-set body ; short, sturdy legs : long, tapering tail. 10 in.; 25 lb. Liver, red, black and tan, dapple, chocolate and tan. There is a light-weight variety 8 in., and 11 lb. Also a long-haired variety with leathered tail and legs, and a wire-haired variety iron-grey in colour.

Dalmatian. Bred as a gun dog in the Balkans and Italy, and as a guard dog in France. Adopted in England as a guard for carriages. Short, smooth coat. Long, pointed tail. 23 in. ; 60 lb. White with black or liver spots.
Dandie Dinmont. Small sporting terrier first bred in Teviotdale. Thick soft, wavy coat. Large head and jaws. 11 in.; 24 lb. Tawny red, dark grizzle, pepper, mustard.

Deerhound, Scottish. Originally bred from the Irish Wolfhound (q.v.) for deer hunting. Long, harsh, wiry coat. Long, strong-jawed head ; straight forelegs ; thin sweeping tail. 33 in. ; 100 lb. Grey, brindle, wheaten
Dobermann Pinscher. German dog first bred in 1890 as a watchdog. Short, harsh coat. Erect ears ; docked tail; long legs. 26 in. ; 65 lb. Black, tan, and blue with red markings.

Elkhound. Originally bred in Scan-dinavia for elk-hunting. Thick, coarse coat, short on face and front of legs, long on neck and back of forelegs. Body strong and thickset; tail curved over rump. 20 in. ; 50 lb. Grey.

Foxhound. Derived from the St. Hubert bred in the Ardennes for stag-hunting. Used in England and U.S.A. for fox-hunting. Short, smooth coat. Tri-angular ears ; long, upstanding tail. 23 in. ; 70 lb. Tan and white with black markings, white legs, chest and tip of tail.

Fox Terrier. Bred for digging out foxes run to earth. There are smooth and wire-haired varieties. Ears drooping and V-shaped docked, upstanding tail. 15 in. 18 lb. White with black saddle, and black or tan ears and head markings.

Great Dane. Of German origin; first used for fighting and later for boar-hunting. Short, dense, sleek coat. Black muzzle ; drooping ears ; long tail carried low. 30 in. ; 120 lb. Brindle, black, fawn, blue. There is a white variety with black markings.

Greyhound. Probably the oldest breed of sporting dog, used for coursing by the Egyptians 4,800 years ago and introduced into Britain by the Phoeni-cians, short. smooth coat. Long neck and pointed muzzle ; slim, muscular icgs ; long, thin, down-curving tail 27 in. . 65 lb. Fawn, brindle, slate tan, black and white.

Griffon. Toy dog first bred in Brussels (hence its full name Griffon Bruxellois), from imported Yorkshire terriers. Harsh, wiry coat. Monkey-like head ; thick whiskers ; docked tail. 10 in. 15 lb. Wheaten or red.

Harrier. First bred in ancient Greece for hare-hunting. Short, harsh coat. Like a foxhound in general appear-ance. but more heavily built. l9 in.: 75 lb.

Irish Terrier. Originally bred from one of the three varieties of dog native to Ireland. Dense, wiry coat. Square build; long muzzle; short, pointed, upstanding tail. 18 in. ; 27 lb
Red, golden red, wheaten-red. Keeshond. Dutch barge dog. Dense coat very thick on neck and forelegs. Pointed muzzle ; erect, pointed ears;
heavily-plumed curling tail. 18 in. ; 40 lb. Ash-grey, tawny, wolf-grey.

Kerry Blue Terrier. Originally bred from the " gadhar " anciently used in County Kerry for sheep-herding. Now used as a shepherd, drover, and swine¬herd. Soft, wavy coat. Powerful body; heavy muzzle ; short, pointed,
erect tail. 18 in. ; 37 lb. Smoke blue or grey.

Lakeland Terrier. Small hunting dog originally bred from nondescript
terriers in the Fell district. Hard. dense and wiry coat. Stocky hotly;
long muzzle; short, erect tail. 14 in. .
17 lb. Black and tan, blue and tan. black, red, mustard, grizzle, and wheaten.

Maltese. Oldest of European toy dogs. first bred in Malta in 4th century B.C. Introduced into England by Henry VIII. Long, straight, silky coat. Terrier-like head ; droop ears. tail
curved over back. 9 in. ; 10 lb.

Manchester Terrier. Descended from black-and-tan terrier, and first bred in Lancashire as a ratter Short, smooth, glossy coat. Sharp muzzle ; droop ears; pointed, down-sweeping tail. 16 in. 18 lb. Black with tan markings.
Manchester Terrier site - lots of information, where to get puppies, plus some fun free games to play.

Mastiff. Fighting dog first bred in 10th century B.C. in India. Introduced by the Phoenicians into Britain,
Whence exported to Rome for the arena. Later developed in England for bear-baiting. Short, smooth coat Heavy build; wrinkled face; black muzzle. 30 in. ; 165 lb. Brindle. fawn, apricot, silver fawn.

Newfoundland. First bred in Newfound¬land from imported St. Bernard.
A strong swimmer, it was used lor rescuing seamen shipwrecked on the coast. Flat, coarse coat, slightly oily and very resistant to water. Short head and muzzle; bushy, down-sweeping tail; feathered legs and chest. 29 in. ; 150 lb. Black.

Old English Sheepdog or Bob Tail. Bred from Russian Owtcharka sheep-dog. Tail originally docked and then bred short to avoid tax on long-tailed pleasure dogs. Heavy, shaggy coat lined with thick soft pile ; hair can be spun and woven into cloth. Heavy build : high rump ; short head with hair falling over eyes. 28 in. : 60 lb. Grey, blue, tan, grizzle, merle.

Otterhound. Sporting dog bred from bloodhound and Welsh hound. I'sed in packs for otter hunting. Hard, crisp coat, short body ; pendant ears ; broad muzzle ; long, down-sweeping tail. 24 in. ; 65 lb. Black, blue, tan markings.

Papillon. Toy or Butterfly Spaniel.
Bred from King Charles Spaniel and Mexican long-haired Chihuahua. Coat fine and silky. Sharp muzzle , up¬right ears ; heavily frilled neck ; thick bushy tail sweeping over back. 12 ins. ; 12 lb. Black and white, chestnut, yellow, red, ruby, or white with any of these markings.

Pekinese. Toy dog originally bred as a palace pet in Imperial China, and introduced into Britain in 1860. Long, straight coat. Long body; wide, flat head ; short, wrinkled muzzle ; heavily-feathered legs and ears ; tail curled and plumed. (>-7 ins. : l0lb. Red, black, cream, fawn arid white. There is a miniature variety weighing 6 lb. Sometimes called dragon dog, Pekin palace dog, lion dog.

Pointer. First bred in Spain in 16th century. Originally thick-set, it was "streamlined " by cross-breeding with the foxhound. Famous for its ability to " point " at birds with its nose, body, and tail in a straight line. Short, smooth coat. Long drooping, ears ; long, tapering tail ; body long and sloping from neck to rump, 24 ins. ; 55 lb. White, with liver, black or lemon markings.

Pomeranian. Toy dog originally bred from the German spitz. Long, straight and thick coat. Short body and legs ; muzzle short, pointed, and fox-like. 5 ins. ; 5 lb. Red, blue, white, black, brown, and chocolate. There is a miniature variety weighing 3 lb.

Poodle. Misnamed French poodle. Originated in Germany as the schafer pudel and used for sheep-herding and retrieving water-fowl. Thick, curly coat which it does not cast. Slim body, sharp muzzle, upstanding tail. There are three varieties : large (24 ins., 50 lb.); medium (15 ins., 20 Ib.) ; miniature (8 ins., 10 lb.). White, black, brown, nigger, red, blue. Originally clipped by French to parody British lion.

Pug. Descended from the prehistoric species Simocyon primigenus ; first bred in China arid introduced into Britain through Holland in the 17th century. Short, smooth, glossy coat. Short, square body ; tail short and curled tightly over back; flat, black muzzle. 10 ins.; 15 lb. Silver, fawn, black.

Retriever. Trained to recover dead or wounded game. There are several varieties, the chief being the golden (wavy, golden-tinted coat) and the Labrador (smooth black coat). Both 2:5 ins. ; 70 Ib..

St. Bernard. First bred at the St. Bernard Hospice for rescuing lost travellers in the Swiss Alps. Medium, rough coat. 28 ins. ; 200 lb. White with red markings, red with white markings. There is a smooth-coated variety.

Saluki. Derived from the greyhound and first bred in Persia 5,000 years ago for hunting gazelles. Smooth, silky coat. Slim, greyhound body ; sharp muzzle ; feathered, drooping ears ; long, feathered tail swept under back legs. 28 ins. ; 70 lb. Red, fawn, white, cream, golden, black and tan.

Samoyed. Named after a tribe of central Siberia, where it was bred for herding reindeer and as a sled dog. Long. harsh coat. Short body, sharp muzzle, upstanding ears ; tail feathered and curling. 21 ins.; 48 lb. White, cream, white and biscuit. Not to be confused with the Eskimo husky sled dog.

Schipperke (Flemish "little skipper"). Bred in Holland as barge watch-dog. Short, harsh coat. Short, muscular body ; close-docked tail ; sharp muzzle ; erect ears. 13 ins. ; 15 lb. Black, chocolate, fawn, red.

Scottish Terrier. Oldest dog native to Scotland, originally bred as ratter. Thick, wiry coat. Short, stocky body ; long, heavy head ; short legs ; short, tapering and erect tail. 11 ins. ; 22 lb. Black, wheaten, brindle. grey. Not to be confused with West Highland terrier.

Sealyham. Terrier first bred in Wales in 1850 for drawing badgers. Short. wiry coat. Heavy head ; long, thick-set body ; short legs ; short, upstand¬ing tail. 12 ins. ; 20 lb. White, white with black or tan markings.

Setter, English. First bred in Kith cen¬tury for setting partridges. Long flat, silky coat. Long body ; upright carriage ; droop ears ; feathered tail held straight to rear when pointing. 27 ins. ; 70 lb. White with lemon or liver flecks.

Setter, Red Oldest of the setter family and first bred in Ireland : hence alternative name of Irish setter. Soft, flat coat. Appearance similar to others of setter family, but legs more feathered. 26 ins. ; 65 lb. Rich, golden chestnut (hence some¬times called golden setter).

Skye Terrier. First bred for clearing fox bolts and badger pipes. Long, hard, flat coat. Long body, short legs. 12 ins. ; 30 lb. Fawn, cream, and blue-grey. The long hair over the eyes is a protection when burrowing.

Spaniel, King Charles. Toy dog made popular by King Charles II.
There are four varieties : the true King Charles, black with tan markings; Tricolour, white with black and tan markings ; Ruby, rich chestnut red ; Blenheim, white with red patches and red spot on forehead. All four varieties have long, silky coat, heavy drooping ears, short muzzle, and short legs. 10 ins. ; 12 lb. Spaniel (Cavalier), King Charles. Larger variety of King Charles spaniel and originally used as a sporting dog. Coat long, silky and heavily feathered.
Body shorter and legs longer than those of King Charles Spaniel ; head flat between ears ; docked tail ; long muzzle. 13 ins. ; 18 Ib. White with chestnut markings.
Spaniel, Clumber. Largest of English spaniels. Named after Clumber Park where it was first bred in 1770 by crossing a basset hound with an Alpine spaniel. Short, close. soft coat. Heavily-built body ; large, round head ; short legs and tail. 18 ins. ; 65 lb. White with orange or lemon markings.

Spaniel, Cocker. Sporting dog bred in England in early 19th century for Hushing woodcock. Flat, silky! and close coat. Square muzzle ; domed head ; long, low ears ; compact body with short back ; tail docked and carried low. 10 ins. ; 28 lb. Black, golden, red, liver, blue-roan, red-roan.

Spaniel, Field. Sporting dog similar to cocker spaniel, but larger and more heavily built. 18 ins. ; 50 lb.

Spaniel, Irish Water. Sporting dog first bred in Ireland from a Spanish strain. Remarkable for its swimming ability. Dense, tight coat forming ringlets all over body. Strong body, sharp muzzle; pendant ears; short, thin tail carried low. 22 ins. ; 60 lb. Liver.

Spaniel, Springer. Sporting dog origin-ally bred in Spain to spring " or drive out game, but later developed in England as a pointer. Short, silky coat. Sharper muzzle and longer legs than other spaniels ; tail feathered and carried gaily. 20 ins. ; 50 lb. Any of the spaniel colours.

Welsh Terrier. Terrier first bred in Wales by crossing the fox terrier and black-and-tan terrier. Hard, tight, wiry coat. Whiskered muzzle ; typical terrier body ; erect tail ; pendant ears. 15 ins. ; 20 lb. Black and tan ; black, grizzle, and tan.

West Highland White Terrier. Sporting dog bred in Argyllshire from white Cairn terrier. Long. hard, straight coat. Heavy, muscular body : short muzzle; thick, erect tail. 11 ins.; 18 1b. White.

Whippet. Coursing dog tirst bred in north of England by crossing the greyhound and the Manchester terrier. Similar in appearance to greyhound but smaller. 18 ins. ; 21 lb.

Wolfhound, Irish. Originally bred in Ireland for hunting elks and wolves. Hough, hard coat. Heavy body ; long head with powerful jaws ; small ears ; long, straight tail. 31 ins. ; 120 lb. Grey, red, Mack, fawn or brindle.

Yorkshire Terrier. Toy dog bred in north of England from the Scottish terrier and the now extinct long-haired English terrier. Long, straight, silky coat, Sharp muzzle ; long body'; short legs. 8 ins. ; 7 lb. Steel blue, tan.

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