Principal Breeds of Dogs
PRINCIPAL BREEDS OF DOGS
(The figures refer to height at shoulder, and weight)
Afghan Hound. Largest of the grey¬hound family. Long, fine hair,
ears. 29 in. ; 66 lb. Red, fawn, or golden. Originally bred in Afghanistan
Airedale Terrier. Largest of the terrier family. Originally bred in the
Aire valley, Yorkshire. Short, wiry hair. 23-24 in. ; 45-50 lb. Tan or
grizzle with black saddle. Excellent police-and watch-dog.
Alsatian. One of the oldest breeds, originated in early Bronze Age (6,000
years ago). Used in Germany as sheep-dog. Smooth, medium-length hair.
25 in. ; 55 lb. Wolf-grey, sahle, brindle, black and tan, white, and
cream. Excellent as guards and guide-dogs for the blind.
Basenji. Native to the Congo. Does not bark. Short, smooth coat. 16 in.
21 lb. Chestnut with white feet and
Basset. A small, short-legged, hunting dog Close smooth hair 13 in. :
44 lb. Black and tan with white
Beagle. small sturdy hound Short, smooth coal. 16 in. ; 35 lb. Black
and tan with white markings.
Bedlington Terrier. Bred from the whippet. Short curly coat. 16 in. ;
22 lb. Blue, tan, sandy.
terrier (q.v.). 9 in. : 7 lb.
Bloodhound. Old French breed des-cended
from St. Hubert Hound. Introduced into England by William the Conqueror
lor deer hunting. Short, glossy coat. Loose skin lying in folds on forehead
; long ears and chops.
26 in. ; 100 lb. Red, mahogany, tan
or black. Because of its keen scent
used for tracking.
Border Terrier. Small terrier first bred in Northumberland. Harsh, weather-proof
outer coat and thick undercoat. 12 in. ; 15 lb. Grizzle, red-wheaten,
blue and tan.
Borzoi. Russian wolfhound. Long, silky, curly coat. 30 in. ; 100 lb.
White, or white and brown, with orange, fawn, red, or blue markings.
Boston Terrier. Called after Boston, Massachusetts, where it was first
bred by crossing English and French bull¬dogs. Short, smooth coat.
Flat nose, Shori twisted tail. 15 in. ; 18 lb. Black and white, brindle,
mahogany, golden. There is a miniature variety 12 in. and 11 lb.
Boxer. German bulldog crossed with English bulldog. Short, smooth coat.
Short nose, cropped ears, docked tail. 23 in. ; 60 lb. Bed, fawn, brindle.
Bulldog. Originally bred in England for bull-baiting. Short, smooth
coat. Broad, wrinkled head, snub nose, protruding lower jaw, deep and
chest. 16 in. ; 52 lb. Any shade except black or black and tan.
Bulldog, French. Developed in France from dog bred in Spain for worrying
bulls. Short, smooth coat. Broad, square head ; short, thick tail ; large
upstanding, bat-like ears. 12 in. ; 26 lb. Brindle and pied.
Bull Mastiff. English dog bred from bulldog and mastiff as a watchdog.
Short, dense coat. Large, square head ; tail thick at root and tapering
point; short nose; short, thick body.
27 in. ; 125 lb. Fawn or brindle ; black mask.
Bull Terrier. Bred from the bulldog and old English white terrier as
a flighting dog and ratter. Short, smooth coat. Thick-set body; long
head; broad chest. 22 in. ; 50 lb. White, brindle. There is a miniature
variety 12 in. and 12 lb.
Cairn Terrier. Scottish dog related to Skye and West Highland terriers
and bred for ratting. Thick, harsh coat, furry underneath. Short ears,
erect tail. 10 in. ; 15 lb. Ginger, fawn, wheaten, brindle.
Chow Chow. Chinese dog originally bred in Mongolia for eating and for
its fur. Thick and woolly coat. Small, erect ears ; tail thickly-furred
and carried over the back. Black gums and tongue. 20 in. ; 60 lb. Black,
chocolate, red, blue, white. There is a smooth-haired variety called
Collie. Scottish sheep dog, believed to be a direct descendant of the
original wild dog from which all to-day's breeds derive. Long, thick
harsh coat. Long head ; long, low-sweeping tail. 24 in. , 60 lb. Black
and tan, sable, merle. There is a rare smooth-coated variety.
Corgi. Welsh cattle dog, of two varieties : the Cardiganshire and the
Pembroke¬shire. The Cardiganshire has a long, trailing tail, while
in the Pembroke¬shire the tail is short or absent. Smooth, dense
coat. Long body ; short legs ; large, erect ears. 12 in. ; 22 lb. Brindle
or black with fawn, white, or red markings.
Dachshund. One of the oldest breeds. Known in Egypt in the 26th century
B.C. Developed in medieval Germany for hunting badgers. Short, smooth
coat. Long, low-set body ; short, sturdy legs : long, tapering tail.
10 in.; 25 lb. Liver, red, black and tan, dapple, chocolate and tan.
There is a light-weight variety 8 in., and 11 lb. Also a long-haired
variety with leathered tail and legs, and a wire-haired variety iron-grey
Dalmatian. Bred as a gun dog in the Balkans and Italy, and as a guard
dog in France. Adopted in England as a guard for carriages. Short, smooth
coat. Long, pointed tail. 23 in. ; 60 lb. White with black or liver spots.
Dandie Dinmont. Small sporting terrier first bred in Teviotdale. Thick
soft, wavy coat. Large head and jaws. 11 in.; 24 lb. Tawny red, dark
grizzle, pepper, mustard.
Deerhound, Scottish. Originally bred from the Irish Wolfhound (q.v.)
for deer hunting. Long, harsh, wiry coat. Long, strong-jawed head ; straight
forelegs ; thin sweeping tail. 33 in. ; 100 lb. Grey, brindle, wheaten
Dobermann Pinscher. German dog first bred in 1890 as a watchdog. Short,
harsh coat. Erect ears ; docked tail; long legs. 26 in. ; 65 lb. Black,
tan, and blue with red markings.
Elkhound. Originally bred in Scan-dinavia for elk-hunting. Thick, coarse
coat, short on face and front of legs, long on neck and back of forelegs.
Body strong and thickset; tail curved over rump. 20 in. ; 50 lb. Grey.
Foxhound. Derived from the St. Hubert bred in the Ardennes for stag-hunting.
Used in England and U.S.A. for fox-hunting. Short, smooth coat. Tri-angular
ears ; long, upstanding tail. 23 in. ; 70 lb. Tan and white with black
markings, white legs, chest and tip of tail.
Fox Terrier. Bred for digging out foxes run to earth. There are smooth
and wire-haired varieties. Ears drooping and V-shaped docked, upstanding
tail. 15 in. 18 lb. White with black saddle, and black or tan ears and
Great Dane. Of German origin; first used for fighting and later for boar-hunting.
Short, dense, sleek coat. Black muzzle ; drooping ears ; long tail carried
low. 30 in. ; 120 lb. Brindle, black, fawn, blue. There is a white variety
with black markings.
Greyhound. Probably the oldest breed of sporting dog, used for coursing
by the Egyptians 4,800 years ago and introduced into Britain by the Phoeni-cians,
short. smooth coat. Long neck and pointed muzzle ; slim, muscular icgs
; long, thin, down-curving
tail 27 in. . 65 lb. Fawn, brindle, slate tan, black and white.
Griffon. Toy dog first bred in Brussels (hence its full name Griffon
Bruxellois), from imported Yorkshire terriers. Harsh, wiry coat. Monkey-like
head ; thick whiskers ; docked tail. 10 in. 15 lb. Wheaten or red.
Harrier. First bred in ancient Greece for hare-hunting. Short, harsh
coat. Like a foxhound in general appear-ance. but more heavily built.
l9 in.: 75 lb.
Irish Terrier. Originally bred from one of the three varieties of dog
native to Ireland. Dense, wiry coat. Square build; long muzzle; short,
pointed, upstanding tail. 18 in. ; 27 lb
Red, golden red, wheaten-red. Keeshond. Dutch barge dog. Dense coat very
thick on neck and forelegs. Pointed muzzle ; erect, pointed ears;
heavily-plumed curling tail. 18 in. ; 40 lb. Ash-grey, tawny, wolf-grey.
Kerry Blue Terrier. Originally bred from the " gadhar " anciently
used in County Kerry for sheep-herding. Now used as a shepherd, drover,
and swine¬herd. Soft, wavy coat. Powerful body; heavy muzzle ; short,
erect tail. 18 in. ; 37 lb. Smoke blue or grey.
Lakeland Terrier. Small hunting dog originally bred from nondescript
terriers in the Fell district. Hard. dense and wiry coat. Stocky hotly;
long muzzle; short, erect tail. 14 in. .
17 lb. Black and tan, blue and tan. black, red, mustard, grizzle, and
Maltese. Oldest of European toy dogs. first bred in Malta in 4th century
B.C. Introduced into England by Henry VIII. Long, straight, silky coat.
Terrier-like head ; droop ears. tail
curved over back. 9 in. ; 10 lb.
Manchester Terrier. Descended from black-and-tan terrier, and first bred
in Lancashire as a ratter Short, smooth, glossy coat. Sharp muzzle ;
droop ears; pointed, down-sweeping tail. 16 in. 18 lb. Black with tan
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Mastiff. Fighting dog first bred in 10th century B.C. in India. Introduced
by the Phoenicians into Britain,
Whence exported to Rome for the arena. Later developed in England for
bear-baiting. Short, smooth coat Heavy build; wrinkled face; black muzzle.
30 in. ; 165 lb. Brindle. fawn, apricot, silver fawn.
bred in Newfound¬land from imported St. Bernard.
A strong swimmer, it was used lor rescuing seamen shipwrecked on the
coast. Flat, coarse coat, slightly oily and very resistant to water.
Short head and muzzle; bushy, down-sweeping tail; feathered legs and
chest. 29 in. ; 150 lb. Black.
Old English Sheepdog or Bob Tail. Bred from Russian Owtcharka sheep-dog.
Tail originally docked and then bred short to avoid tax on long-tailed
pleasure dogs. Heavy, shaggy coat lined with thick soft pile ; hair
can be spun and woven into cloth. Heavy build : high rump ; short
hair falling over eyes. 28 in. : 60 lb. Grey, blue, tan, grizzle, merle.
Otterhound. Sporting dog bred from bloodhound and Welsh hound. I'sed
in packs for otter hunting. Hard, crisp coat, short body ; pendant
ears ; broad muzzle ; long, down-sweeping tail. 24 in. ; 65 lb. Black,
Papillon. Toy or Butterfly Spaniel.
Bred from King Charles Spaniel and Mexican long-haired Chihuahua. Coat
fine and silky. Sharp muzzle , up¬right ears ; heavily frilled neck
; thick bushy tail sweeping over back. 12 ins. ; 12 lb. Black and white,
chestnut, yellow, red, ruby, or white with any of these markings.
Pekinese. Toy dog originally bred as a palace pet in Imperial China,
and introduced into Britain in 1860. Long, straight coat. Long body;
wide, flat head ; short, wrinkled muzzle ; heavily-feathered legs and
ears ; tail curled and plumed. (>-7 ins. : l0lb. Red, black, cream,
fawn arid white. There is a miniature variety weighing 6 lb. Sometimes
called dragon dog, Pekin palace dog, lion dog.
Pointer. First bred in Spain in 16th century. Originally thick-set, it
was "streamlined " by cross-breeding with the foxhound. Famous
for its ability to " point " at birds with its nose, body,
and tail in a straight line. Short, smooth coat. Long drooping, ears
; long, tapering tail ; body long and sloping from neck to rump, 24 ins.
; 55 lb. White, with liver, black or lemon markings.
Pomeranian. Toy dog originally bred from the German spitz. Long, straight
and thick coat. Short body and legs ; muzzle short, pointed, and fox-like.
5 ins. ; 5 lb. Red, blue, white, black, brown, and chocolate. There is
a miniature variety weighing 3 lb.
Poodle. Misnamed French poodle. Originated in Germany as the schafer
pudel and used for sheep-herding and retrieving water-fowl. Thick, curly
coat which it does not cast. Slim body, sharp muzzle, upstanding tail.
There are three varieties : large (24 ins., 50 lb.); medium (15 ins.,
20 Ib.) ; miniature (8 ins., 10 lb.). White, black, brown, nigger, red,
blue. Originally clipped by French to parody British lion.
Pug. Descended from the prehistoric species Simocyon primigenus ; first
bred in China arid introduced into Britain through Holland in the 17th
century. Short, smooth, glossy coat. Short, square body ; tail short
and curled tightly over back; flat, black muzzle. 10 ins.; 15 lb. Silver,
Retriever. Trained to recover dead or wounded game. There are several
varieties, the chief being the golden (wavy, golden-tinted coat) and
the Labrador (smooth black coat). Both 2:5 ins. ; 70 Ib..
St. Bernard. First bred at the St. Bernard Hospice for rescuing lost
travellers in the Swiss Alps. Medium, rough coat. 28 ins. ; 200 lb. White
with red markings, red with white markings. There is a smooth-coated
Saluki. Derived from the greyhound and first bred in Persia 5,000 years
ago for hunting gazelles. Smooth, silky coat. Slim, greyhound body ;
sharp muzzle ; feathered, drooping ears ; long, feathered tail swept
under back legs. 28 ins. ; 70 lb. Red, fawn, white, cream, golden, black
Samoyed. Named after a tribe of central Siberia, where it was bred for
herding reindeer and as a sled dog. Long. harsh coat. Short body, sharp
muzzle, upstanding ears ; tail feathered and curling. 21 ins.; 48 lb.
White, cream, white and biscuit. Not to be confused with the Eskimo husky
Schipperke (Flemish "little skipper"). Bred in Holland as barge
watch-dog. Short, harsh coat. Short, muscular body ; close-docked tail
; sharp muzzle ; erect ears. 13 ins. ; 15 lb. Black, chocolate, fawn,
Scottish Terrier. Oldest dog native to Scotland, originally bred as
ratter. Thick, wiry coat. Short, stocky body ; long, heavy head ;
; short, tapering and erect tail. 11 ins. ; 22 lb. Black, wheaten,
brindle. grey. Not to be confused with West Highland terrier.
Sealyham. Terrier first bred in Wales in 1850 for drawing badgers. Short.
wiry coat. Heavy head ; long, thick-set body ; short legs ; short, upstand¬ing
tail. 12 ins. ; 20 lb. White, white with black or tan markings.
Setter, English. First bred in Kith cen¬tury for setting partridges.
Long flat, silky coat. Long body ; upright carriage ; droop ears ; feathered
tail held straight to rear when pointing. 27 ins. ; 70 lb. White with
lemon or liver flecks.
Setter, Red Oldest of the setter family and first bred in Ireland : hence
alternative name of Irish setter. Soft, flat coat. Appearance similar
to others of setter family, but legs more feathered. 26 ins. ; 65 lb.
Rich, golden chestnut (hence some¬times called golden setter).
Skye Terrier. First bred for clearing fox bolts and badger pipes. Long,
hard, flat coat. Long body, short legs. 12 ins. ; 30 lb. Fawn, cream,
and blue-grey. The long hair over the eyes is a protection when burrowing.
Spaniel, King Charles. Toy dog made popular by King Charles II.
are four varieties : the true King Charles, black with tan markings;
Tricolour, white with black and tan markings ; Ruby, rich chestnut red
; Blenheim, white with red patches and red spot on forehead. All four
varieties have long, silky coat, heavy drooping ears, short muzzle, and
short legs. 10 ins. ; 12 lb. Spaniel (Cavalier), King Charles. Larger
variety of King Charles spaniel and originally used as a sporting dog.
Coat long, silky and heavily feathered.
Body shorter and legs longer than those of King Charles Spaniel ; head
flat between ears ; docked tail ; long muzzle. 13 ins. ; 18 Ib. White
with chestnut markings.
Spaniel, Clumber. Largest of English spaniels. Named after Clumber Park
where it was first bred in 1770 by crossing a basset hound with an Alpine
spaniel. Short, close. soft coat. Heavily-built body ; large, round head
; short legs and tail. 18 ins. ; 65 lb. White with orange or lemon markings.
Spaniel, Cocker. Sporting dog bred in England in early 19th century for
Hushing woodcock. Flat, silky! and close coat. Square muzzle ; domed
head ; long, low ears ; compact body with short back ; tail docked and
carried low. 10 ins. ; 28 lb. Black, golden, red, liver, blue-roan, red-roan.
Spaniel, Field. Sporting dog similar to cocker spaniel, but larger and
more heavily built. 18 ins. ; 50 lb.
Spaniel, Irish Water. Sporting dog first bred in Ireland from a Spanish
strain. Remarkable for its swimming ability. Dense, tight coat forming
ringlets all over body. Strong body, sharp muzzle; pendant ears; short,
thin tail carried low. 22 ins. ; 60 lb. Liver.
Spaniel, Springer. Sporting dog origin-ally bred in Spain to spring " or
drive out game, but later developed in England as a pointer. Short, silky
coat. Sharper muzzle and longer legs than other spaniels ; tail feathered
and carried gaily. 20 ins. ; 50 lb. Any of the spaniel colours.
Welsh Terrier. Terrier first bred in Wales by crossing the fox terrier
and black-and-tan terrier. Hard, tight, wiry coat. Whiskered muzzle ;
typical terrier body ; erect tail ; pendant ears. 15 ins. ; 20 lb. Black
and tan ; black, grizzle, and tan.
West Highland White Terrier. Sporting dog bred in Argyllshire from white
Cairn terrier. Long. hard, straight coat. Heavy, muscular body : short
muzzle; thick, erect tail. 11 ins.; 18 1b. White.
Whippet. Coursing dog tirst bred in north of England by crossing the
greyhound and the Manchester terrier. Similar in appearance to greyhound
but smaller. 18 ins. ; 21 lb.
Wolfhound, Irish. Originally bred in Ireland for hunting elks and wolves.
Hough, hard coat. Heavy body ; long head with powerful jaws ; small ears
; long, straight tail. 31 ins. ; 120 lb. Grey, red, Mack, fawn or brindle.
Yorkshire Terrier. Toy dog bred in north of England from the Scottish
terrier and the now extinct long-haired English terrier. Long, straight,
silky coat, Sharp muzzle ; long body'; short legs. 8 ins. ; 7 lb. Steel